Wednesday, April 23, 2008

Battery and environmental protection

Battery and environmental protection

Used batteries of potential contamination has caused widespread concern in the community. China is the world's top battery production and consumption power, Data show that China currently has more than 1,400 battery manufacturers, 1980 battery production has surpassed the United States and ranks first in the world. In 1998 the production of dry batteries in China reached 14 billion, while the same year the world's total output of batteries about 30 billion.
Such a large number of batteries, makes a great problem exposed, that is, how many batteries do not damage the environment pollution to our survival. According to our survey, used batteries contain heavy metals and a lot of waste acid, waste alkali and other electrolyte solution. If discarded at will, corruption of the battery will undermine our water resources, erosion for the survival of our crops and land, our living environment facing a huge threat. If a battery in the 1st Lane rot, toxic substances make it one square meters of land lost value; throwing a button batteries into the water, which contained toxic substances will result in 600,000 liters of water pollution. Equivalent to a person's life water consumption; spent batteries containing cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, zinc, manganese, etc., cadmium, lead, mercury on the human body against the larger material. And nickel, zinc and other metal Although a certain concentration of useful material, but in the environment over the limit, but will also jeopardize the human body. Battery leakage of heavy metal waste will cause Jiang, river, lake, sea and other water pollution and endanger the survival of aquatic organisms and the use of water resources, indirect threat to human health. Waste acid, waste alkali and other electrolyte solution may be contaminated land, the land acidification and salinization, which Tongmai such as the one around us time bomb. Therefore, the waste collection and disposal of the batteries is very important, if disposed of improperly, may be on the ecological environment and human health caused serious harm. Arbitrarily discarded used batteries not only pollute the environment, is also a waste of resources. It was just an account of the annual production to 10 billion batteries, the annual consumption of 156,000 tons of zinc, 226,000 tons of manganese dioxide and 2,080 tons of copper, 27,000 tons of zinc chloride, 79,000 tons of ammonium chloride, 4.3 Million tons of carbon rod. While advanced technology has given us the right point, my battery pollution is still not optimistic. At present, China's most used batteries were also mixed with garbage buried underground, the passage of time, after the battery into decay, dissolution of heavy metals, both of possible contamination of groundwater and soil contamination may eventually through various channels to enter the food chain. From the biological environment in the intake of heavy metals through the food chain of amplification, the more senior level by level of enrichment in the tens of thousands of times, and then enter the food chain through the human body, in some organs in savings of chronic poisoning, Japan Minamata disease is a typical case of mercury poisoning.
Generally fall into one cell batteries and rechargeable batteries. The main battery, including one-time zinc-manganese batteries (zinc and manganese dioxide), zinc mercury batteries (zinc and Yang Huagong) and lithium batteries, and other categories. The main include cadmium rechargeable batteries - nickel, iron - nickel, zinc - silver, zinc - air and lithium - iron sulfide and lead-acid batteries, and so on. Used in our daily lives is the largest zinc-manganese batteries and mercury zinc batteries due to pollution caused by the main battery is mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd).

The toxicity of mercury

Mercury that we commonly known as the "Mercury", is a liquid at room temperature for the material, you can block cell cathode metal zinc oxide, the practice of raising battery storage life. Thus, as early as in the past used the zinc batteries do extremely overcast almost all do a certain amount of mercury preservatives. However, mercury and mercury compound has the nerve toxicity, endocrine system, the immune system, also have an adverse impact, it will trigger the Kouchibuqing, unsteady gait, limb weakness, resulting in systemic cramps, mental disorders die.
For a long time, production of dry batteries in China, to join a toxic substances - mercury or mercury compounds. China's alkaline batteries of the mercury content of 1 percent to 5 percent, to 0.025 percent neutral batteries, the batteries used in the production of each of the dozens of tons of mercury on the number. With the advancement of technology, a low battery began gradually mercury and mercury-free, mercury substitutes surfactant Forafac fluorinated polymers, in zinc to prevent corrosion, have achieved good results.

The toxic cadmium

Cadmium is not necessary for the body of trace elements in newborn babies and no cadmium, but the increase with age, gradually built up. Cadmium is renal toxicity, renal damage caused by it is not reversible. At the same time kidney injury may also be secondary to osteoporosis, Ruan Guzheng and fractures. In 1993, the International Union Against Cancer will be set for the IA-level cadmium carcinogens. For these reasons, many developed countries have proposed ban on the use of nickel-cadmium batteries and nickel-hydrogen battery has been replaced by nickel-cadmium batteries, to avoid the use of cadmium. The vast majority of China's battery manufacturers are still used as cadmium battery production of raw materials, makes battery against further intensify.

Waste battery recycling

Waste batteries may be small, endangering Queshen large. However, because of scrap batteries do not like garbage pollution, air and water pollution that can be felt by the senses, and it is very subtle, and therefore did not receive the attention they deserve. Currently, the country to become a battery production and consumption of power, waste battery pollution is an urgent need to address a major environmental problems.
According to environmental experts, the waste battery recycling in every 1,000 grams of metal, including the 82 grams of mercury, cadmium 88 grams, can say that the disposal of waste battery recycling not only deal with the sources of pollution, but also achieved a recycling and reuse of resources. Foreign developed countries to waste battery recycling and use of attached great importance. Many Western European countries, not only in shops, but also directly on the street are equipped with special callback, scrap batteries in 95 percent of the material can be recovered, particularly high value of heavy metal recovery. Secondary Lead such as foreign trade developed rapidly and lead production of the existing 55 per cent are from the Secondary Lead. And Secondary Lead industry, waste lead-acid batteries of renewable occupy a large proportion of treatment. 100 kg waste lead-acid batteries can be recycled 50 to 60 kilograms of lead. For the cadmium content of scrap batteries renewable processing, has been abroad more mature technology, processing 100 kilograms of cadmium batteries recyclable waste about 20 kilograms of metal cadmium, mercury-containing batteries are mainly used environmentally sound processing means to prevent the pollution of the environment . And our current management in this area is weak.

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